Saturday, August 24, 2019

Individual Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Individual - Essay Example There are several issues associated with the speech. Consequently, analysis of the agent, agency, and overall purpose of the act indicates strengths and weakness and strengths of speech and covers all the issues in speech presentation. The agent Hillary Clinton at the time of the presentation was the first lady, the wife of serving president of America. The analysis of her personality indicates that she was outspoken, and in the speech she presented her beliefs and issues that she wanted addressed (Keyton). By use of facial appearance and voice intonation, she was able to impact the audience positively. She focused on areas that needed change and that could be addressed to achieve women freedom by enlisting the challenges faced by women in different countries. However, in the speech she indicated only the challenges faced by women and not the achievement already obtained in the process. Through limiting coverage of the successes achieved, she created a fallacy that women are totally oppressed. This notion is not true because women hav e achieved success in some issues. For instance, the women liberation movement of 1900 was able to ensure that women obtain the right to vote and own property. Therefore, despite the existing oppression of women, the freedom to vote and own property was achieved. Then, the fallacy of generalization exhibited in the speech creates a wrong picture of the whole situation (Kampf 112). The presentation of the arguments followed a specified plot, which includes the creation of awareness by illustrating the current situation and developing the objectives and visions in the process. The counter arguments were not presented fully but highlighted as, by the way, issues rather than issues to be pondered. The development of then problem was concise by following an emotive plan which was effective because it captured the attention of the audience. The focus on the issues ensured that the audience was with the presented on

Friday, August 23, 2019

Marketin Planning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Marketin Planning - Essay Example The advisory committee helps the companies to reveal the strength and weakness in the strategic plans. It discusses the strategic responses with the companies and provides them with the outcome where the company has to improve. The companies are required to get registered with the committee, so that they receive continuous updates and monitoring from IHS CERA. The membership is taken on the annual basis and the committee delivers two research cycles to the companies, who are registered under it. The committee provides with the current scenario of marketing strategies of the industries. The companies will remain well aware regarding the changing perspective of the marketing plans that are undertaken by the industry (Petro Tech, 2012). The members are bound to receive the following from the committee: 1) Forecast or anticipation of the oil and gas industry of the United States 2) Get the access to the IHS CERA Database Centre. 3) Receive semi annual client meeting (invitation/ record o f the proceedings) Shell is the leading oil and petrochemical company based in Unites States. The company seeks to develop unique marketing strategy based on the current scenario of the marketing plans of the industry. ... Shells seek to maintain its position in the industry by meeting the global energy demand in a very responsible way. They aim at providing competitive returns for the shareholders. The company also seeks to develop a competitive edge, so that they can retain the best position in the industry. In new downstream markets, access to upstream resources has become very difficult as there exist high competition. But for Shell the main competitive advantage is their capability of project delivery and the operational excellence along with their concentration in the upstream businesses. The company has invested 80% of the capital in the upstream business in 2013. In the upstream business, the company focus on the exploration of new liquids and natural gas reserves. They aim at developing new projects where the technology and the know-how of the business can add value to the resource holders (Deloitte, 2013). The downstream and upstream engines are generating cash and developing the business, wh ich is strengthening the financial performance of the company.   The company makes investment in few selective growth regions. It thus applies distinctive technology to the growth regions and provides with excellent operating performance for extending the productive lives of the assets of the company and hence increases profitability. Their major strategies are the deep water, integrated gas and the resources that play an important role, such as shale oil and gas. The themes provide them with medium term growth and they expect to make the themes to be their core engines of the business in the near future. The future opportunities of Shell include the potential oil reserves of Iraq, Arctic, Nigeria and Kazakhstan. The opportunities are to be exploited by the company in order to

Thursday, August 22, 2019

About My Childhood Essay Example for Free

About My Childhood Essay My name is Rouda Mohammed Al-Suaidi. I started kindergarten at the age of 4 in one of the finest schools in Abu Dhabi, which is Al-Worood Private School. I felt so scared on my first day of school and I didn’t go to school alone. My mother used to stay with me in class which made some of my classmates laugh at me. I remember they used to call me â€Å"A baby† and â€Å"Mommy’s little girl†. I used to cry a lot when they call me this. I spent my whole childhood there from kindergarten until High School. Throughout my childhood, I faced several successes and challenges. One of my successes in my childhood is being a famous basketball player in school. It first started at home, where I used to have a small basketball hall to practice and play with my family and friends especially in the weekends. At first, I didn’t have any idea on how to play this sport, but with the help of my precious father and uncle, they taught me all the ways and techniques to be an excellent basketball player. After being taught by my father and uncle, I started implementing the techniques and ways in mini basketball competitions, which were just amongst the students from grade 6-12. Although I was a fat, chubby young basketball player in school, my P.E teacher wanted me to compete with other international schools in Dubai and Sharjah. In the beginning, I was anxious and worried to compete with the schools in Dubai and Sharjah. Moreover, I was terrified because I had an image in my mind that the students their will make fun of me and laugh because I was fat. See more: Social process essay My P.E teacher motivated me and started training me after school time. After a lot of training and support from both my P.E teacher and family, I competed with the other schools and our school was ranked the 2nd best school in playing basketball. I was so happy about it but I wished to be ranked the first, but it never de-motivated me in practicing more and more. My father always told me: â€Å"be optimistic and never be pessimistic† and since then, I’ve been following my father’s quote until my recent life. Another success in my life was helping my cousin in raising two of her only children, a boy (Ali) and a girl (Sarah). At that time, Ali was just 18 months and Sarah was only 3 months. Ali and Sarah were everything to me. They were staying with me most of the time from the afternoon after I directly come back home from school till the evening around 10. However, in the weekends, they used to sleepover in our house. When I come back home, I used to eat lunch quickly and finish my school work quickly just to spend time with them. After I finished all my studies, I used to play with them, feed them lunch and dinner, bathe them at night before they leave in the weekdays and create a time for their naps during the day. The reason behind me helping my cousin in doing the mother duties is because my cousin was going through a process of having a divorce. After the divorce, my cousin went through depression and when I saw her like that, I offered to help her in her duties towards her children. So, she showed me how to do several things like: changing their diapers, play gently with them and taking turns while playing, share toys with each other, how to make them sleep, feed them and many other things. Although it is a very hard job raising a child, it didn’t prevent me from learning to be a successful mother in the future when I have my own children. Also, it didn’t stop my studies in sch ool. Moreover, it made me more focused in class and become a better student. Being a make-up artist is my third success through my childhood. In order to reach that success, I had to watch a lot of people putting make-up, ask them to teach me the techniques on how to put make-up and arrange the colors of the make-up when drawing the eyes, understanding and knowing the differences of all skin types for the make-up. Also, I used to watch people putting make up through T.V programs, watch the whole program and write down my questions on a piece of paper and send them an email in order to ask my questions and wait for their reply. Being a make-up artist was my childhood dream and after learning the basics and imitating it on the people, I became more confident and would want to expand my dream into opening my new make-up beauty center in the short term time. Although there were some successes in my childhood, I also faced many challenges. One of my greatest challenges was feeling embarrassed and lonely. During my childhood, I was always embarrassed of myself because I was very fat. The students in school used to make fun of me and call me different names: like â€Å"you look like pumba†, â€Å"you look like an old cow†, and many other names. I used to cry a lot to my mother when I go back home. Because I stood quiet and listen to students for years making fun of me, I turned to be a lonely person in my childhood. I used to be alone in the music lessons, art lessons and in the break times. I used to like walking alone, not playing with other children like all other normal children do. The reason behind this was my worry of the children making more fun of me because I was fat. This issue affected me a lot as a child but as I grew up, I started to be more sociable with the people. Another challenge is to know and understand the quality of time. As a child, I always wanted to play and have fun. I never organized my time and never valued the quality of time. I always wanted to lose time when I was assigned for any job for my mother or finish my school work very quickly and not caring about my work at all. All I wanted is time for playing only. As I grew older, I had many commitments to do in life like studying to become an excellent student and get high grades that would allow me to enroll in one of the best universities in Abu Dhabi, being with my family by visiting them, living my personal and social life and others. Unfortunately, I realized that I couldn’t mange my time at all and I was eager for help. My family was very supportive. They got me books on time management and I started reading those books, learning the techniques on how to organize your time. After a period of time, I started organizing my time, appreciate and value the quality of time. Finally, meeting my family’s expectation was also one of my challenges in life. The reason behind it is that parents expect a lot from their children. They expect to be successful, talented, hard working, enthusiastic and many other things. You wouldn’t want to embarrass yourself in front of your parents, because they always think that they’ve raised a perfect child whereas no one is perfect and everyone has negative and positive side effects. In my childhood, my parents expectations to me was being an excellent students, getting high grades in my exams and quizzes. I felt overwhelmed, pressured and exhausted because I didn’t want embarrass myself with my parents and I didn’t want them to get angry and mad at me for not at least trying to reach their expectation. I was trying very hard to meet their expectations in any of the issues and expectations and eventually I did.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Implications of Postmodernism Essay Example for Free

Implications of Postmodernism Essay Postmodernism can be referred to as an aesthetic, political, literary or social philosophy, which lays a foundation with an attempt to explain a state or condition of something which is concerned with changes in the worldly institutions and conditions. Postmodernism over time has emerged as a field of academic study in various disciplines such as sociology, communications, music, literature, architecture, fashion, technology e. t. c. It is much revealed well on looking into modernism. Therefore postmodern can be seen to be a period before the invention of the modern technology e. g. the use of computers, radios, mobile phones, televisions and internet services. Thus it follows most of the modernism ideas as it is the one that born up the modernism through acceptance of flexibility and self consciousness, discontinuity and fragmentation, simultaneity, and great emphasizes on destructured and dehumanized subject. Implications of Postmodernism in Real World In many cases postmodernism does not lament the ideas of fragmentation, incoherence and provisionality and by so it views the world being meaningless and thus it influences this thought to individuals especially the learners and this finally leads to disrespect of the world e. g. through destruction and misuse in various ways. Postmodernism contains cultural formations which usually accompany major important life stages such as capitalism. These stages allow usage of variety of practices which postmodernism dictates upon the type of procedures to be followed. For instance it follows market capitalism, this is associated with technological developments like steam engines, the monopoly capitalism, which is associated with improved technology e. g. use of electric and internal combustion engines. Finally it incorporates the multinational or consumer capitalism which is associated with electronic and nuclear technologies and in addition to these this stage also majors on marketing, selling and consumption of commodities. Postmodernism does not produce originals only that it does the copying therefore in it there is no that original value, therefore it just creates a virtual reality which is a result of simulation. In addition postmodernism is mostly concerned with questions of organizational knowledge, but this knowledge is usually narrative as contrasted to science of the modernism. Therefore this knowledge is limited, primitive and irrational because it is only stores and Lesley distributed. Therefore postmodernism can be viewed the established dichotomies that separates the production processes from consumption processes, leisure from work , economies from cultures, socially gendered categories and biological categories,symbolic from functions ,domestic from global realness e. t. c . In this description thus it shows that the prediction of earlier social orders of various cultural experiences is in these dichotomies which has led to witnessing of the major fundamental societal changes. References Featherstone, M. (1991). Consumer culture and postmodernism. Sage Publications, London: Newbury Park http://www. colorado. edu/English/courses/ENGL2012Klages/pomo. html http://www. wikipedia. org/wiki/Postmodernism Woods, Tim, B. (1999). Postmodernism. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Examining The Concept Of Green Economy Environmental Sciences Essay

Examining The Concept Of Green Economy Environmental Sciences Essay Nature is important and valuable for us and it is our responsible to keep maintain it. By this, green economy is an economy when we are concerned on the environment, not only on the monetary. Supporters of this branch of economics are concerned with the environment and believe that actions should be taken to protect nature and encourage the positive co-existence of both humans and nature. Green economy is when human needs, earth materials and world of work have the harmonious interaction with each other. Green economists assert that the basis of all economic decisions should be in some way tied to the ecosystem. The economic growth and the environmental friendly are the trade-off between each other. The only economy that can eliminate the trade-off between this trade-off is green economy. The effort to eliminate this trade-off needs human creativity, tremendous of knowledge and a good participation from all people and not only from our government. Green economic emphasize the creation of positive alternatives in all areas of life and every sector of the economy. This effort needs a great support from private and public sector. Green economy also can be defined based on triple bottom line which is the environment sustainable, social just and stable economic activities. Environment sustainable is mention about the scarcity of raw material. The scarce material should be used wisely and the environment should be protected. Thus, tremendous knowledge and creativity of the human being is needed. The supporting systems also must be considered. Socially just is about considering our social life will affect our economic and it will directly affect our environment. Social, economy and environment is a strong connection in order to achieve a great and harmony life. It is the human being responsibilities to gain a good standard of living without damaging our environment. Our economics is generated by the human being, so it is our responsi bility to concern from every aspect. Figure 2: Triple bottom line Principles of the Green Economy The world already comes out with ten principles on the Green Economy. The principles touch on every aspect that takes into account in economy. The first principle is the primacy of use value, intrinsic value and quality. This principle is the main of the green economy and this principle see the green economy as the service economy. It takes into account on the final customer who receives the product. In the result, the customer gets the product correctly and it did not affect the environment. Human needs and the environment condition is the major aspect that green economy must achieve. The main purpose is to satisfy the human needs. What you get, that is how much you must pay, that is the suitable to describe about this principle. Equal pay is to reflect on the exchange that we already get, for example if we make some product, we must not consider it cost but also on the cost of environment. The second principle is the following natural flow. This principle tells us that the economy process is not only walk alone. It comes with the environment as the complement. The economy must build the boundaries in order to be fair to the environment. A firm can maximize their profit, but they also must minimize the pollution. The third principle is the waste must equal to the food. We must minimize our waste in order to stabilize our environment. We can produce non-toxic product in order to minimize the impact to our environment. Appropriate scale is considering on the activity of the economy. It is not mean that we must takes into account on the only the large firm. We must also see the small firm which there also gives large impacts to our environment. Green economy also needs the participant and direct democracy. In order to build flexibility and sustainability, participation from all people is important. The definition of participation is the creativity and the efforts in build the healthy economics process to achieve a high development and clean environment. Besides that, human creativity and development is also needed to achieve the green economy standard. Of course the machine and technology in green economy is expensive, but is human have the creativity in manipulate and think on the way to achieve green economy, the world can easily practice green economy. The next principles are the diversity which tells us that there are variety factor that affect the ecosystems. So, we must analysis all the factor in order to get the best result to take care of our environment. All the factors are connected each other, so we must master all the aspects. Self-Reliance, Self-Organization, Self-Design is the complex systems necessarily rely on nested hierarchies of intelligence which coordinate among themselves in a kind of resonant dance. These hierarchies are built from the bottom up, and in contrast to civilizations social hierarchies although these local and regional domains must be attuned to larger processes. Self-reliance is not self-sufficiency, but facilitates a more flexible and holistic interdependence. The strategic role of built-environment, the landscape and spatial design is the last principle that we are going to touch. We can achieve the perfect result if we can arrange the right steps to achieve the green economy. Our government must also play role in order to minimize the pollution in our production. The quality and the effectiveness is important to recover all the effects in our economy. Benefits from green economy Eradicate poverty Poverty remains a major global concern, despite impressive reductions especially in East Asia. A transition to a green economy can contribute to eradicating poverty by across a range of key sectors. These potential green economic sectors are including agriculture, forestry, fishery, and water management. These sectors especially the agriculture sectors are particularly important for the poor in developing countries because they are depending on these sectors as major sources of income. This is especially critical for subsistence farming because almost1.3 billion people depend upon it for their livelihoods (UNEP et al. 2008). Investing in greening agriculture benefits the poor in terms of secure livelihoods. The investment in the natural capital and ecosystem services will increase the poors income opportunities through increased yields and creation of new green jobs especially in rural areas. They will also gain other social and environmental benefits from the direct use of ecosystems. The Bill Melinda Gates Foundation have awarded $15 million for the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa to work on the effort to the farming techniques that are both environmentally responsible and highly productive, focusing primarily on small-scale farming in sub-Saharan Africa (Garthwaite, 2009). According to the recently launched UNEP Green Economy Report, for every 10 per cent increase in farm yields, there has been a 7 per cent reduction in poverty in Africa; and more than 5 per cent in Asia. Evidence suggests that the application of green farming practices has increased yields, especially on small farms, between 54 and 179 per cent. (Herren, 2011) Furthermore, a green economy can alleviating poverty and improving overall quality of life by increase access to basic services and infrastructure. For example, Renewable energy technologies like solar and wind power, and supportive energy policies promise to make a significant contribution to improving living standards and health in low income areas, particularly to those that currently lack access to energy. Create green job A global transition to green economy will create large numbers of green jobs in many economic sectors that includes renewable energy, buildings and construction, transportation, basic industry, agriculture, and forestry and indeed can become an engine of development. Current green job creation has so far occurred mostly in developed countries and in some of the rapidly developing countries such as Brazil and China. Green Jobs are also beginning to be seen in other developing economies.(Institute, 2008) Bangladesh has a project to train local youth and women as certified solar technicians and as repair and maintenance specialists. This is aims to create some 100,000 jobs. At the same time, in India, an initiative to replace inefficient biomass cooking stoves in nine million households with more advanced ones could create 150,000 jobs. It now appears that a green economy can generate more and better jobs everywhere and that these can be decent jobs. (Institute, 2008) Pew (2009) state that the number of jobs in Americas emerging clean energy jobs in the clean energy economy grew at a national rate of 9.1 percent while traditional jobs grew by only 3.7 percent between 1998 and 2007.  This report has count across all 50 states of the actual jobs, companies and venture capital investments that supply the growing market demand for environmentally friendly products and services. Climate change has damage the livelihoods of millions, mostly poor people in developing countries. Sectors consuming large amounts of energy and natural resources are likely to see a decline in jobs. So, transitions to new opportunities and sustainable jobs and incomes are urgently needed for those impacts. In some countries, especially in the developing countries, new jobs being created in the food, agriculture and recycling sectors as a result of climate change and environment leave are the desired and considered new decent. (Institute, 2008) Environmentally-friendly Green economy describes sustainable growth that is environmentally-friendly, sensitive to the need to conserve natural resources, and minimal emissions during the production process, and promotes environmentally-friendly lifestyles and consumption patterns while growing the economy. While meeting the industrial needs of one state to produce their service and commodities not only local environmental disturbances are created but the environment of the other states is also affected. This is mostly happen in Developed Countries (DCs) and much more due to the greed rather than the need factor dominant in less developed countries (LDCs).The environmental crisis need for deep reform of production and consumption patterns especially the DCs that are rich in resources and able to transform into green economy. The green economy can help in reduce the pollution by the green waste, green building, and green transportation and so on. For instant, by green waste that turning waste into a resource and encouraging the reduction, reuse and recycling of waste, significant gains can be achieved in decoupling waste production from economic growth. Besides that, investment in green transport that means to use more public transport than use own car and car pool with others to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas emissions by more than a quarter and deforestation in developing countries, is one of the biggest drivers of climate change and a major threat to sustainable development. Thus, wind, solar and other sustainable renewable energy could provide almost a third of all global power needs and this energy could reduce those greenhouse gases and could be almost fully halted. Generate healthful society The green economy as a means to raise living standards and emphasize environmental friendly will also improve health and well-being for all segments of society. This will generate a healthier future generation. By shifting toward greening economy, the future of technology is most definitely green. With the rising energy costs and the threat of global warming, many businesses are now recognizing the benefits of using technology to reduce carbon footprint and also to minimize waste, while giving a positive outcome to their business. (SME Corporation Malaysia, 2011) The field of green technology is continuously evolving various methods, materials from technique for generating energy to non-toxic cleaning products (SME Corporation Malaysia, 2011). One of the example of greening product is Natura paint from Benjamin Moore is an odorless interior paint. This paint has zero VOC colorants which is the organic chemicals that will affect the environment and human health. The other example is the poly Whey wood finish from Vermont Natural coatings uses recycled whey protein which is a by-product of the dairy industry a binder. This helps produce this low-odor coating that has no toxic heavy metals and low VOCs. This innovation will change the daily of society gradually. (Automattic , 2008) Reduce waste and inefficiency Going to green economy will lead to resources efficient. Much of the problem with conventional agricultural, manufacturing and other industrial practices are stems from inefficiency and waste. For example, the inefficiency of energy, the waste of the paper and material, usage of the expensive chemicals though natural methods are more practical and unsustainability of conventional farming methods over the long-term. Eliminate waste and increasing efficiency are critical parts of a green economy. Green solutions can save much for the cost. There are a few examples of economic and cost-efficient changes. (Cosmato, 2010) Hemp fibers are more sustainable and less expensive to grow than cotton. Hemp paper is more eco-friendly, sustainable, and longer lasting than paper made from wood pulp. Save on paper and packaging by sending documents online. Use more eco-friendly packaging, and less of it. Wood from sustainable forests should be used to replace the unsustainable forest over the long-term keeps the price of lumber under control because resources not be depleted. Using less water in textile production will save on water and energy costs. The manufacturing sector can saves money and reduces greenhouse gas emissions and pollution by using fewer chemicals. Using natural soaps for cleaning, natural dyes, or looking for natural instead of chemical solutions to problems also helps. Making workspaces green such as energy-efficient light bulbs, solar lighting and heating options, using recycled office supplies and recycling office supplies, can help in reduce costs and waste. The enormous opportunities of separating waste generation from GDP growth also can be highlight, including what is recovered in recycling. For examples, the Republic of Korea has enforced regulations on products as batteries and tyres to packaging like glass and paper, through a policy of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). This has triggered 14 per cent increase in recycling rates and an economic benefit of $1.6 billion. Besides that, Brazils recycling already generates returns of $2 billion a year. At the same time, this country has avoiding 10 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions. (Nazareth, 2011) Opening up of new export markets A shift to a green economy will also generate economic benefits. One of the obvious potential benefits to a green economy is the opening up of new export markets. Export opportunities exist in all sectors of the green economy. The significant new markets are biofuels, and for renewable energy technologies such as solar panels and wind turbines. ( Ocampo, 2010) Opportunities in these markets are driven by demand in export markets, a combination of foreign demand and domestic capacity development in response to stringent domestic environmental standards. Germany is currently the top exporter of green products with a 16 percent share of the international trade volume, followed by the US which is 15 percent and Japan which is 9 percent. Denmark is the largest exporter of clean energy technology, specifically wind turbines. (Globe Foundation, 2010) Malaysia Services Exhibition (MSE) 2010 recognized Malaysia has an excellence, reputation and capability in the rapidly growing green technology sector. In conjunction with this exhibition, Publication called Malaysia Excellence and Capabilities in Green Technology was also launched. Embarking on green renewable energy provides the opportunities to Malaysia export new market. (MEEC Unit, 2011) Perspective of others countries toward green economy In the first preparatory meeting for 2010 conference, there is the debate and interactive exchange between developed countries and developing countries on their perspective about green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication. In the views of Spain on behalf of the European Union, green economy is a relevant, timely and politically challenging theme. It emphasizes the private sector role, the right price setting and the right of social policies. It stresses on the cooperation between countries and the support to green economy strategies such as promotes the renewable energy, use and management of sustainable resource. In the perspective of Mexico, green economy is a new model. However, it should not cause the change in the agenda, approaches and options respond to the challenges that has not solved by community in terms of sustainable development. Mexico said that it is critical for developed countries transfer technology that can moderate the degradation of environment and support the implementation in developing countries. On the other hand, the United States recognize that transition to a green economy was the only way forward. It also recognizes that the means of green economy and the methods implemented will vary from different countries. According to United State, countries should embrace green economy as a new awakening instead of resist it and introduce various initiatives for green economy. Japan has touted its Hatoyama Initiative and outlines some of its action related to green economy. The Hatoyama Initiative is a national carbon-regulation scheme that announced at the Copenhagen Summit in December 2009 by Japans former Prime Minister, Yukio Hatoyama. This initiative targets a 25 percent cut in global warming emmisions below 1990 levels by 2020. Korean also shared its experiences with green strategies. It said it has invested 2 percent of its GDP on green development to move towards low carbon growth. It said that green growth is about solving climate change problem aggressively and making green technologies and industries to drive to national economic growth. In the perspective of Indonesia, green economy is a vehicle towards a sustainable development. According to Indonesia, the global economic crisis occurred recently has shown that some problems in the method their current and past economic development. This provides them an opportunity to redesign national and global economic policies and strategies toward the implementation of green economy. Besides, according to China, the green economy has recently become a critical trend. It stress that countries must conduct policy measurement for green development. The operational mechanisms are also needed to achieve development virtuously which characterized by economic and social development in harmony with resources and the environment. Then, the harmony interaction between man and nature, conservation and creation of ethical value for environment in social and economic value is also important to change the mode of production and life style. Furthermore, the international community also play role to create an enabling environment to achieve green development. (Ling Iyer, 2010) From the countries perspectives, it is obvious that majority agree with the transition to green economy. Malaysia perspective and policy toward green economy Ministry that has responsibility and concern about issues of green economy in Malaysia is under Ministry of energy, Green technology and water. Malaysia needs face these phenomena because of climate change has become one of the biggest international challenges in the 21st century. Malaysia also face increasing total of carbon dioxides emissions this will lead to increasing in temperature and Malaysia become hotter than before. Below showing total carbon dioxide emissions at Malaysia: Table 1: Total C0 2 emissions Malaysia at years 1971 until 2008 Year CO 2 emissions (million tonnes of CO 2) 1971 12.7 1975 16.1 1980 24.2 1985 33.4 1990 48.9 1995 78.5 2000 111.1 2005 152.8 2006 158.1 2007 169.9 2008 180.9 Source: International Energy Agency Table 1 showing the increasing total carbon dioxides gas emissions in Malaysia at years 1971 until 2008, this all because of Malaysia now day more focus on manufacturing sector. As we know manufacturing sector will contribute on increasing of carbon dioxides such as smoke from factories. An addition, overcrowded of transportation in urban area also will contribute to increasing of total carbon dioxides gas. That why interventions of government are important to protect our environment form damaged and conservation our environment. Figure 3: Total energy production in Malaysia at 1972 until 2008 Coal/peat oil Gas Hydro Comb.renew.wast Source: IEA Energy Statistics Figure 3 showing the total of energy production in Malaysia at year 1972 until 2008 which it increases usage of all energy resource. This all because of increasing of populations in Malaysia where demand for energy is increase and Malaysia now day focus on Manufacturing were it use more energy to support this sector to success. Useful of this all energy actually will give positive and negative impact, especially use of enough energy is good for our production sector and meet the demand of citizen, but the negative impact is toward our environment and will lead to scarcity of resources. That why, Malaysia government concern about this issues and try to find a way to minimize and resolve this problem. To overcome of these challenges government turns out with three Policies on Environmental Protection and Conservation introduced over the years such as below: On 2002, government approved National Policy on Environment which integrates the three elements of sustainable development they are economic, social and cultural development and environmental conservation. The Policy aims at continued economic, social and cultural progress and enhancement of the quality of life of Malaysians through environmentally sound and sustainable development. Then on July 24, 2009 government has launched the National Green Technology Policy with objective: I. To minimize growth of energy consumption while enhancing economic development. II. To facilitate the growth of the Green Technology industry and enhance its contribution to the national economy. III. To increase national capability and capacity for innovation in Green Technology development and enhance Malaysias competitiveness in Green Technology in the global arena. IV. To ensure sustainable development and conserve the environment for future generations. V. To enhance public education and awareness on Green Technology and encourage its widespread use. Four Pillars of Green Technology Policy: I. Energy Seek to attain energy independence and promote efficient utilization. II. Environment Conserve and minimize the impact on the environment. III Economy Enhance the national economic development through the use of technology. IV. Social Improve the quality of life for all. (Malaysian Country Water Partnership, 2011) Lastly is on 2009 government also launched National Climate Change Policy. The aim of this policy is to ensure climate resilient development to fulfill national aspirations for sustainability. Rational of these policies such as below: I. Changes of climate overtime directly will affect human activity as well as natural systems and processes. II. To give people information, education and awareness about green economy, changes of climate and its effect. III. Initiative of government interventions and government effort to take care of people within country. Several initiative undertaken Ministry of energy, Green technology and water to address the challenges of climate change and to pushing for a low-carbon: Energy efficiency The Malaysian Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Programme represents one of the main efforts undertaken to improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector. This programme showsthat ministry concern about useful of energy especially on productions and environment. This programme focuses on reducing impacts of the energy sector on the environment and also to improve competitiveness of products and services in the global market. Renewable energy April 2010, renewable energy policy and action plan was given appoved by government. This policy is aimed at promoting long-term sustainability by reducing our dependence on fossil fuels for electricity generation and at the same time stimulates a new growth industry for the country. An additions this policy also important to conserve the environment for future generation and to enhance awareness of role and important of renewable energy, example renewable energy is such as biomass, biogas, mini-hydro and system solar. Green buildings Ministry was carried out with the Green Building Index (GBI). GBI is assessment or rating tool to grade environment-friendly buildings and the Government is providing fiscal incentives to buildings which are GBI-certified. Owners of GBI-certified buildings are entitled to income tax exemptions, equivalent to the additional capital expenditure, to green their building. Buyers of green buildings from developers will also be exempted from stamp duty equivalent to the additional cost incurred to green their building. (Ministry of energy, Green technology and water, 2010) Environmental Performance Index (EPI) Score in 2008 Rank Source: 2008 EPI report Figure 4: The top ten greenest countries ranks and rating in EPI The figure above shows the environmental performance index in 2008. This index takes not only the pollution index of the country, but it also considered the industry, populations, size as well as the demographic of the country. It considered the issues of environment health such as the burden of disease, air and water pollution and ecosystem vitality such as the climate change, water and air pollution effect from ecosystem. Figure four shows that nine out of top ten countries is developed countries and only Columbia is the only developing country. The other developed countries such as Japan and U.S have respectively ranked in 21th and 39th. The relatively wealthy countries have high score in the Environment Health result. In contrast, the developing countries include Malaysia that ranked at 27th score lower than the developed countries. The success of the wealthy country is due to the policy effort and deep commitment to environmental values through their public and business communities. The developing countries are less in pollution stress and less in access to financial resources when they need it such as nutrition and disease, this lead to the air pollution, climate and change and biodiversity. Recently, the score of EPI in 2010 has also released. But owing to changes in methodologies and underlying data, the EPI score in 2010 and rank cannot be directly compared to 2008 scores and ranks. Environmental Performance Index (EPI)score in 2010 Source: 2010 EPI report Figure 5: The top ten greenest countries ranks and rating in EPI The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 2010 report is the result from a research done by Environment Law and Policy at University and The Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) of Colombia University in collaboration with World Economic Forum. It is rating ranks 163 different countries according to ecosystem vitality and environment health. The ecosystem vitality include issues such as the climate change, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, biodiversity and habitat, water and air pollution while the environment health take account the environment burden of disease, air pollution and water. Overall, there are six over ten of the top greenest countries are developed countries. They are Iceland, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, France and Austria. The developing countries ranks in the top ten are Costa Rica, Mauritius, Cuba, and Colombia. Other developed countries like Japan and U.S. rank in 20th and 61th respectively while Malaysia rank in 54th. Iceland is the top greenest country where it is the only countries that score more than 90 points which is 93.5 points. Although it is a developed country, it has high score on environmental public health, controlling greenhouse gas emissions, and reforestation as well as plentiful hydropower and geothermal energy. This shows that it is effective in the pollution control and natural resources management. According to the Kyoto Protocol, Icelands has obligations concerning greenhouse emission. It must not increase their greenhouse gas emissions by more than 10 percent and above 1990 levels during the period 2008 to 2012 (European Environment Agency , 2010). Costa Rica is the developing countries that ranked in the third place of Environmental Performance Index with 86.4 points. According to some author who surprise with its rank, Costa Rica is a very rough and vastly unsafe country and has a few tourist trap. However, actually Costa Rica has some efforts in green. It is one of the first countries in the world that recognize the economic and social benefits from the environmentally sensitive forestry. There are 26 percent of the Costa Ricas land area are protected forests and more than 50 percent out of bounds for human living settlement. (United Nations Environment Programme, 2010) The United States has very low score at 63.5 points with 61th rank. Increase of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution are vastly contributed to its low ranks. But U.S maintains the nations forest sustainability and provision of safe drinking water, this assist it from fall to more low rank. The Japan ranked 20th and score 72.5 points. This is due to Japan put many efforts in the renewable energy because they aware that their big city, Tokyo, emit carbon dioxide has causes the global warming especially. Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) has set a goal which is to increase the proportion of renewable energy used from the total energy used in Tokyo around 20 percent by the year of 2020. (Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2006) Besides that, Japan is a world leader in PV manufacturing. Malaysia is ranked 54th and scores 65 points in EPI. It placed behind Japan but in front of the U.S. Malaysias environmental health is 81.31 points over 100 points while the ecosystem vitality is 48.7 point over 100 points. Thus the average is 65 points. The Greenhouse gas emissions, CO2 Emissions per electricity generation, and industrial greenhouse gas emission intensity are the major contribution to the low score in ecosystem vitality and so EPI score. Since Malaysia has ranked 54th over 163 countries. This is a good starting point for Malaysia. By this EPI, Malaysia will aware of its position and encourage more

Monday, August 19, 2019

Trace Evidence Essay examples -- essays research papers

Crime scenes are known to have many clues left behind. The obvious would be a the body or bodies, clothing, and sometimes even the murder weapon. While these are great way to solve a case there's another kind of evidence; trace evidence. Trace evidence are small pieces of evidence that are laying around a crime scene. There are many types of trace evidence some of them include metal filings, plastic fragments, gunshot residue, glass fragments, feathers, food stains, building materials, lubricants, fingernail scrapings, pollens and spores, cosmetics, chemicals, paper fibers and sawdust, human and animal hairs, plant and vegetable fibers, blood and other body fluids, asphalt or tar, vegetable fats and oils, dusts and other airborne particles, insulation, textile fibers, soot, soils and mineral grains, and explosive residues. Although these are the most common found elements, they are not the only ones. The Trace Evidence Unit is known to examine the largest variety of evidence types a nd used the biggest range of analytical methods of any unit. materials are compared with standards or knowns samples to determine whether or not they share any common characteristics. In this paper I will discuss the different kinds of trace evidence and how crime scene investigaros use it to solve cases and convict criminal. Trace evidence was first discovered by Edmond Locard. Edmond Locard was born in 1877, and founded the Institute of Lyon’s Institute of Criminalistics. He is also known for advancing the science of fingerprints. In 1910 he was authorized to start a small forensic laboratory in the Palais de Justice which he directed until 1951.While there he worked on criminal identification methods including poroscopy- the microscopic examination of fingerprints; analyses of body fluids, hair and skin; and graphometry or handwriting analysis. He is the man responsible for coming up with the theory that when two objects come in contact with each other they leave some kind of material matter behind. This theory was later called Locard’s Exchange Principle. The idea is that the evidence can be used to associate objects, individuals or locations with one another." A person typically loses about 100 hairs a day. These hairs may be of evidentiary value to show contact between two people. With an adequate hair standard, a trace chemist will be able to microscopically compare a... ...furniture which may be locked. They then use the small paint chips and metal as evidence and process them the way that individual piece of evidence should be processed. Believe it or not, wounds from a victim are also evidence. The wound can allow the investigators to match up any marks that could have been made from the weapon and therefore allows them to determine at what angle, distance, and how fast the weapon was used. The last type of evidence I will discuss are documents. Everyone has a different handwriting and different characteristics that make it unique. Computers are also unique in the way they type and print out things. Document examiners can look over these and establish the similarities in the handwriting and computer forensic specialists can extract logs and other data from most devices. As you can see there is no perfect crime. The littlest piece of hair or paint or anything left behind can be found. Suspects often miss these tiny peieces of evidence and while they looked over it, it is still lurking at the crim scene. It is guarenteed that a Crime Scene Investigator will find this evidence no matter how small and use it to find, prosecute, and convict a criminal. Trace Evidence Essay examples -- essays research papers Crime scenes are known to have many clues left behind. The obvious would be a the body or bodies, clothing, and sometimes even the murder weapon. While these are great way to solve a case there's another kind of evidence; trace evidence. Trace evidence are small pieces of evidence that are laying around a crime scene. There are many types of trace evidence some of them include metal filings, plastic fragments, gunshot residue, glass fragments, feathers, food stains, building materials, lubricants, fingernail scrapings, pollens and spores, cosmetics, chemicals, paper fibers and sawdust, human and animal hairs, plant and vegetable fibers, blood and other body fluids, asphalt or tar, vegetable fats and oils, dusts and other airborne particles, insulation, textile fibers, soot, soils and mineral grains, and explosive residues. Although these are the most common found elements, they are not the only ones. The Trace Evidence Unit is known to examine the largest variety of evidence types a nd used the biggest range of analytical methods of any unit. materials are compared with standards or knowns samples to determine whether or not they share any common characteristics. In this paper I will discuss the different kinds of trace evidence and how crime scene investigaros use it to solve cases and convict criminal. Trace evidence was first discovered by Edmond Locard. Edmond Locard was born in 1877, and founded the Institute of Lyon’s Institute of Criminalistics. He is also known for advancing the science of fingerprints. In 1910 he was authorized to start a small forensic laboratory in the Palais de Justice which he directed until 1951.While there he worked on criminal identification methods including poroscopy- the microscopic examination of fingerprints; analyses of body fluids, hair and skin; and graphometry or handwriting analysis. He is the man responsible for coming up with the theory that when two objects come in contact with each other they leave some kind of material matter behind. This theory was later called Locard’s Exchange Principle. The idea is that the evidence can be used to associate objects, individuals or locations with one another." A person typically loses about 100 hairs a day. These hairs may be of evidentiary value to show contact between two people. With an adequate hair standard, a trace chemist will be able to microscopically compare a... ...furniture which may be locked. They then use the small paint chips and metal as evidence and process them the way that individual piece of evidence should be processed. Believe it or not, wounds from a victim are also evidence. The wound can allow the investigators to match up any marks that could have been made from the weapon and therefore allows them to determine at what angle, distance, and how fast the weapon was used. The last type of evidence I will discuss are documents. Everyone has a different handwriting and different characteristics that make it unique. Computers are also unique in the way they type and print out things. Document examiners can look over these and establish the similarities in the handwriting and computer forensic specialists can extract logs and other data from most devices. As you can see there is no perfect crime. The littlest piece of hair or paint or anything left behind can be found. Suspects often miss these tiny peieces of evidence and while they looked over it, it is still lurking at the crim scene. It is guarenteed that a Crime Scene Investigator will find this evidence no matter how small and use it to find, prosecute, and convict a criminal.

Themes of Alienation and Control in James Joyces Araby Essay -- James

Alienation of â€Å"Araby† Although â€Å"Araby† is a fairly short story, author James Joyce does a remarkable job of discussing some very deep issues within it. On the surface it appears to be a story of a boy's trip to the market to get a gift for the girl he has a crush on. Yet deeper down it is about a lonely boy who makes a pilgrimage to an eastern-styled bazaar in hopes that it will somehow alleviate his miserable life. James Joyce’s uses the boy in â€Å"Araby† to expose a story of isolation and lack of control. These themes of alienation and control are ultimately linked because it will be seen that the source of the boy's emotional distance is his lack of control over his life. The story begins as the boy describes his neighborhood. Immediately feelings of isolation and hopelessness begin to set in. The street that the boy lives on is a dead end, right from the beginning he is trapped. In addition, he feels ignored by the houses on his street. Their brown imperturbable faces make him feel excluded from the decent lives within them. The street becomes a representation of the boy’s self, uninhabited and detached, with the houses personified, and arguably more alive than the residents (Gray). Every detail of his neighborhood seems designed to inflict him with the feeling of isolation. The boy's house, like the street he lives on, is filled with decay. It is suffocating and â€Å"musty from being long enclosed.† It is difficult for him to establish any sort of connection to it. Even the history of the house feels unkind. The house's previous tenant, a priest, had died while living there. He â€Å"left all his money to institutions and the fu rniture of the house to his sister (Norton Anthology 2236).† It was as if he was trying to insure the boy's boredom and solitude. The only thing of interest that the boy can find is a bicycle pump, which is rusty and rendered unfit to play with. Even the â€Å"wild† garden is gloomy and desolate, containing but a lone apple tree and a few straggling bushes. It is hardly the sort of yard that a young boy would want. Like most boys, he has no voice in choosing where he lives, yet his surroundings have a powerful effect on him. His home and neighborhood are not the only sources of the boy's animosity. The weather is also unkind to the boy. Not only is it cold, but the short days of winter make play more difficult under the â€Å"feeb... ... is not at all that he imagined. It is dismal and dark and thrives on the profit motive and the eternal lure its name evokes in men. The boy realizes that he has placed all his love and hope in a world that does not exist except in his imagination. He feels angry and betrayed and realizes his self-deception. He feels he is â€Å"a creature driven and derided by vanity† and the vanity is his own (Sample Essays). The story provides many sources for the boy's animosity. Beginning with his home and overall environment, and reaching all the way to the adults that surround him. However, it is clear that all of these causes of the boy's isolation have something in common, he has control over none of these factors. While many of these circumstances no one can expect to have control over, it is the culmination of all these elements that lead to the boy’s undeniable feeling of lack of control. Works Cited The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2000 Classic Notes on Dubliners. Grade Saver. 2003. Sample Essays Analyzing James Joyce's Short Story â€Å"Araby†. Gray, Wallace. Notes for James Joyce's â€Å"Araby†. World Wide Dubliners.