Saturday, December 7, 2019

Traditional vs. Online College free essay sample

The first thing an enrollment counselor will assist a student with, after they have selected how they will attend and their major, will be getting familiar with the online learning system, which students are able to access at a campus and online. An enrollment counselor may invite you to a nearby campus if you have one and will also inform you that ‘all’ Phoenix students are welcome to the school and its student resource center or computer lab. In addition to the similarities described, both options include a 100% grading rubric, ebooks, participation credit, and learning teams. With all the similarities it may be a hard to distinguish a clear choice, but know that either is a rewarding opportunity. The differences in these two learning styles should aid in your final decision. After you have completed this reading, you will find out how interaction, classroom settings, and time commitment may play a part. Beginning with the most obvious difference, we will start with the classroom settings of each. On-ground classes, if available, are taught at a University of Phoenix campus and are typically one day a week. This may not be ideal for those who have busy schedules, a lack of reliable transportation, or just do not prefer to occupy a classroom. If any of the aforementioned items relate on a personal level, then an online classroom may be better. Classes will contain various age groups of other students and an instructor. Diversity is a common dynamic amongst University of Phoenix classes whether at a campus or online. Online classes offer more flexibility with schedules and work completion. This flexibility allows the students to decide exactly how their classroom setting will be. They have the freedom to choose when and where to complete assignments. There is no classroom etiquette to abide by so things like dress code and language are no problem. The online option limits social relationships with peers outside of school, so weigh this aspect around your dependency to sociability. More discipline is required when students do not have a teacher physically around but it is a key factor to have when attending college. Similar to the difference of watching a movie and reading a book, campus classes and online courses make interaction experiences special in their own way. Students will be able to interact with their peers and teachers in different methods. In a classroom, students can talk to people face-to-face and have the ability to perform hands-on activities. Some teachers may offer hard copies of their policies or even give out worksheets for completion. For those who may consider this a luxury, online classes will not be ideal for you. Online interaction could come through e-mails or video chat but accessibility is based on amenities. Time makes communication a possible issue when using emails or other forms of indirect communication. Online this is particularly the most used form of communication, so plan accordingly when dealing with time sensitive material. The online option limits social relationships with peers outside of school, so weigh this aspect around your dependency to sociability. When taking online courses students meet individuals from various places trying to complete the same goal, making a slight possibility of being in range to link up with other individuals. Interaction relates to an individual’s means of communication, so they should solidify their reasoning when shaping their future and contact efforts. A very valuable resource that can never be replenished is time. No matter what goes on, time will continue to pass and it is never fit to be wasted. Time commitment should also be taken into account when figuring whether to go to a campus or go the online route. Any free time could be used to complete assignments, but it’s a better approach to designate specific periods to accomplish work. Online courses have different days where participation will have to be earned, whereas at a campus points are accredited throughout the class and based on the in-class conversation. Going to a campus you must also set out time for the allotted day on which you attend your class. The time it may take to obtain a degree also varies. Working at your own pace online may expedite classes and present an early graduation date. The same way an individual would commit to paying for school and he or she would not want to waste his or her money, the same attitude should be duplicated with concern to their time. After hearing the major differences between the traditional way to attend college as opposed to online courses, this should shed light on any situation. With the extra guidance and assistance from a strong graduation team, students have the pieces they need to achieve just about any academic goal. This university will encourage their students to set goals if they have not already been accustomed. Being in touch with one’s academic needs, they should be able to make the best decision to positively influence their academic career. The most important thing to know is that eventually traditional classes will resort to online classes as students’ progress through their program. That piece of information may fear some potential candidates but for those who welcome the challenge, they will be able to experience the best of both worlds as I already have. Learning firsthand the significant points of both on-ground and online classes, which do you believe better complements your needs?

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Whole Foods Memo free essay sample

In conclusion, a recommendation for Whole Foods Markets, based on the analysis, will be given. Internal Analysis Fundamentals and Core Values of Whole Foods Markets The cornerstone of Whole Food’s strategy is to carry the highest quality, lowest processed-foods, and the most flavorful and natural preserved foods available. Whole Foods deepest purpose is to help support the health, well being, and healing of people (customers, the Whole Foods team, and businesses) and the planet. John Mackey, cofounder and CEO of Whole Foods, attributes the rapid growth and success of Whole Foods to developing and maintaining a uniquely mission-driven company; a company that is highly selective about what is sold, that remains dedicated to its core values and high quality standards, and is committed to sustainable agriculture. Whole Foods wanted to be the international brand for natural and organic foods and be the best food retailer in every community in which Whole Foods Markets were located. We will write a custom essay sample on Whole Foods Memo or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The chief elements of Whole Foods strategy are as follows: * Selling the highest quality products. Whole Foods Markets featured 30,000 natural, organic, and gourmet food products and non-food items. In 2007, Whole Foods was the world’s biggest seller of organic produce (comprising 67% of Whole Foods total sales, compared to the 40-50% of sales in other supermarket chains). High quality products included fresh perishables, baked goods, meats, and seafood, which differentiated Whole Foods from other supermarkets and attracted a broader customer base. To uphold a 100% guaranteed satisfaction to Whole Foods customers, Whole Foods had stringent product quality standards and customer commitments: Carefully evaluate each and every product sold. * Feature foods that are free of artificial preservatives, colors, flavors, sweeteners, and hydrogenated fats. * Passionate about great tasting food and the pleasure of sharing it with others. * Commitment to foods that are fresh, wholesome and safe to eat. * Seek out and promote organically grown foods. * Provide food and nutritional produ cts that support health and well being. * Satisfying and delighting customers. Whole Foods Markets places a strong emphasis on satisfying and maintaining a commitment to the customer. As part of its merchandising strategy, Whole Foods wanted to create an inviting and interactive store atmosphere for a fun and pleasurable shopping experience. Whole Foods wanted its customers to view Whole Foods as a â€Å"third place,† third to home and the office. A few Whole Foods stores even offered valet parking, home delivery, and massages! To maintain communication with the customers, Whole Foods stores feature â€Å"take action† centers, where customers could leave feedback and comments. Whole Foods wanted to turn highly satisfied customers into advocates for Whole Foods Markets. Customers could get personal attention in each store department and team members of Whole Foods were knowledgeable and enthusiastic with customers. * Team member happiness and excellence. Whole Foods Markets was founded because its cofounders believed that the natural foods industry was ready for the supermarket format. When the first store opened in 1980, it contained a staff of only 19 people. With this immediate success, the company expanded to 276 stores in 38 states, with teams of 85-600 members per store, and a total of 54,000 by 2008! Whole Foods had a team approach towards its store operations. Having happy employees that helped create happy customers advanced the long-term success of Whole Foods Markets. The team approach promoted strong corporate culture and a work environment where team members could flourish, build a career, and reach their highest potential. Team members are motivated and inspired by Whole Foods’ strategic vision. The process for bringing in a new team member was thorough and the whole team at a store is involved. Team leaders at each store receive a salary and a possible bonus based on EVA (Economic Value Added), a system Whole Foods used to measure performance. In 2004, 86% of employees said they enjoyed their job and 82% felt empowered to do their best work at Whole Foods Markets. Whole Foods Markets offered gain-sharing programs to reward team members according to the store’s contribution to Whole Foods operating profit (additional 5-7% of team members wages). Whole Foods encouraged stock ownership through three programs: A team member stock option plan (based on job performance and length of time employed at Whole Foods), a team member stock purchase plan (based on purchasing stock at 95% of market price), and a team member 401 (k) plan. To maintain high customer service all team members are continuously evaluated and take place in competitions against other Whole Foods Markets in that region. In 2007, around 750 team members were on the EVA-based incentive compensation program. EVA calculations were used to measure profitability and encouraged and motivated team members to succeed. * Creating wealth through profits and growth. As the leader of natural and organic foods in the United States, the management and growth objectives for Whole Foods Markets was to have 400 stores and sales of $12 billion annually by 2010. By 2008 Whole Foods Markets consisted of 276 stores in the United States, Canada, and Great Britain. In 2003 Whole Foods Markets became the first national â€Å"certified organic† grocer in the United States and its organic sales were $17 billion in 2006, up 22% from 2005. In 2000 more organic foods were sold in US supermarkets than in natural food stores. Whole Foods struggled to find suppliers to supply all their stores. Whole Foods Markets looked to exceed because consumer demand was growing 20% annually and consumer enthusiasm allowed retailers to have high profit margins. Once Whole Foods became public in 1992 its growth strategy was to expand by opening new stores and acquiring smaller, owner-managed chains. Between 2002-2006, Whole Foods opened 10-15 bigger stores in metropolitan areas. Acquiring Wild Oats natural supermarkets was a big step for Whole Foods and allowed Whole Foods to enter 15 new metro areas and 5 new states. John Mackey believed that the addition would give additional bargaining power, boost utilization of the company’s facilities, and allow expenses to be reduced. (The Wild Oats acquisition will be discussed in further detail later as part of Whole Foods strategy analysis. With the increased costs of growing and marketing natural and organic products (25-75% more than normal foods), prices for natural and organic foods were higher. Whole Foods emphasized this increased price through its strategy of selling premium products at premium prices. Whole Foods was profitable every year except for 2000, in which it had a net loss o f $8. 5 million. It’s net income increased at a compound average rate of 17. 6% yearly between 2003-2007, and reached $182. 7 million in 2007. (A deeper analysis of Whole Foods financial strategy will be discussed later. ) Caring about communities and the environment. As part of Whole Foods motto, Whole Foods emphasized sustainable agriculture and helping the planet. Whole Foods strived to demonstrate social conscience and community citizenship by donating 5% of its after tax profits to non-profit or educational organizations. Whole Foods Green Mission Task Force promoted environmentally safe practices, including Whole Foods switch to biodiesel fuel for its fleet of vehicles. Whole Foods used renewable energy credits to offset its electricity use and in 2005 created a non-profit Animal foundation and a non-profit Whole Planet foundation. Whole Foods participated in the Whole Trade program and the Local Producer Loan Program. As part of being involved with the community and current issues, Whole Foods publicized its position statements on current issues to the public. Strategies of Whole Foods Markets As discussed, the foundations of Whole Foods Markets are built on high quality, customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and community as well as environmental consciousness. Their strategies to maintain these underlying foundations will be discussed and analyzed in the following. * Differentiation strategy. Whole Foods Markets thrive on selling only the highest quality, freshest, and healthiest foods available so that the health and well being of people can be increased and maintained. Whole Foods strategy for doing so is to acquire high quality products from local, national, and international suppliers and to provide the appropriate merchandising mixes and concepts. Although these products must be sold at higher prices because their costs are higher, the value of purchasing these products has a deeper importance and Whole Foods actively emphasizes these reasons. Whole Foods offers healthy recipes and guides to healthy lives in all their stores. Only 0. 5% of revenues are used on advertising (much lower than normal supermarkets), but it is done efficiently and towards the directed audiences. Once â€Å"organic† gained a consistent meaning and was a selling point, the differences in Whole Foods products were clear. The higher nutritional value and gain from natural and organic foods was becoming an increasing trend and Whole Foods had the right mixture and selection to offer. Factors that affected this upward growing trend of natural and organic products included healthier eating patterns, higher concerns about food purity and safety, increasing health trends among many groups, and the positive environmental factors that organics had. In a 2005 Whole Foods survey, 65% of consumers had tried organic foods (an 11% increase from 2004), 27% had consumed more organics than the previous year, and 10% consumed organics several times a week (compared to 7% in 2004). The products Whole Foods offered that contributed towards its high differentiation success from normal supermarkets consisted of the following: (% refer to the categories of organic foods and beverages purchased most frequently by those participating in the survey: * Fresh fruits and vegetables (73%) * Nondairy drinks (32%) * Breads and baked goods (32%) * Dairy products (24. 6%) * Soups and Pastas (22. 2%) * Meats (22. 2%) * Snacks (22. 1%) * Frozen foods (16. 6%) * Ready to eat meals (12. 2%) The higher prices of organic and natural products were the primary barrier for most consumers.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The significance of the shifts in narrative perspective in Frankenstein Essays

The significance of the shifts in narrative perspective in Frankenstein Essays The significance of the shifts in narrative perspective in Frankenstein Paper The significance of the shifts in narrative perspective in Frankenstein Paper Mary Shelley uses many different narrators inside her story, including Walton, through letters, followed by Victor, and in Volume 2, the Monster themselves. It has various effects on the flow of the story, and its main effect is that it helps the reader to understand the characters in the novel much more easily and also provide the perspectives of various people, to get a feel of what society was at that time, and also to break certain stigmas that were present at that time. This can be seen in all three narrators in the book- Robert Walton, another fellow mad scientist, Victor, the protagonist and the Monster, the main antagonist. Firstly, the main use of Walton in the story helps us understand how a scientist during that time period perceives another scientist with the same intentions and sacrifices as himself. This is because in those ages, when we think of scientists, people often think that they are mad and abandon all of their families and their humane qualities in the quest for unlocking the ultimate secrets of nature- for Walton, the true magnetic North and for Victor, the ultimate goal of being able to play god. But however, this is not true. For example, when Victor arrives at Waltons ship, Walton kindly helps and tries to care for Victor until he has fully recuperated. He also writes in his letters about Victors conditions to Mrs. Saville and in his letters in the last chapter, said my chief attention was occupied by my unfortunate guest(Page 218) and also, he makes friendly ties with Victor, so that Victor can tell his unfortunate tale completely. Hence, by showing all of these humane qualities between the two, and also by showing how they become friends and care for each other, Shelley wants to break the social stigma of that time that scientists are all bad due to the horrendous acts they commit- for example, stealing bodies from the grave, to the point that they no longer have any human traits. Therefore, the use of Walton as a narrator helps us understand how scientists view each other at that time and also to show how the perception of the general public is flawed. Next, the writer uses the narrative perspective of Victor to make us understand how a mad scientist sees himself, and also to see how a mad scientist is not always mentally ill from the beginning, but rather has good intentions that go haywire. Furthermore, the usage of first-person perspective makes us able to understand Victors feelings in a better way rather than if a third person narrator was used. This is shown by Victors true intentions such as the main aim of building the monster- to relieve the grief felt from the departure of loved ones. However, it turns haywire, which is instantly realised when we encounter Victors dream of him kissing his beloved Elizabeth, then followed by the dying corpse of his own mother. That is when everything begins to go wrong. His feelings is also pronounced- for example, we can see what was going through Victors mind when the Monster tried to persuade him to create a female monster- He compassionated at his words but immediately felt disgusted when he saw the Monsters face. By showing all of these aspects of Victors initial good intentions, she aims, again to break the social stigma that mad scientists are all mad from birth and have no good will, by showing Victors innocent childhood and also how his monster was built on good intentions. Furthermore, we can also delve deeper into the mad scientists mind by the usage of the first person narrator, enabling us to see his feelings and thoughts at any moment, discovering the real feelings of Victor- trying to hide from the worry of failure and also its adverse effects, and also his initial desire to succeed at all costs- to prove his detractors wrong. Hence, as a result, we get a better understanding of what a mad scientist is like in those times and find that it was not as bad as people often imagined. Finally, the usage of the Monster as a narrator makes us understand what happens when a man tries to play god and imitate a human- what will the creation feel? The usage of the Monster as an abandoned creation by its creator despite its relative success also shows the perspective of young orphans, and reflects a common trend in the society at that time. This is shown in many ways- for example, when the Monster gathers firewood for the family but is hated by everyone instead, and also how he feels dejected at the very behaviour of the people. He also eventually escalates to the point of getting revenge once his appeal for a female monster is rejected. The overall effect of this is that we get a reflection on the society at that time being too orientated on looks, and also how the novel scrutinises it by Shelleys clever writing which makes us sympathise the ugly Monster, whereas we see every other person in the book looks at him in disgust. Also, we can better understand the feelings of a failure in the society such as orphans whom have no companion and anyone to look after them, and is continually looked down upon by the society. As a result, we can better understand the Monsters role and his significance in the society at that time by using him as the first narrator. In conclusion, Mary Shelley uses the three narrators in a Mise-en-Abyne fashion to slowly delve deeper into the story, and in the process, understand the three narrators, whom are characters in a first-hand manner. Shelley also uses these three characters which have unique roles as narrators to help her break certain social stigmas present at that time. But overall, the usage of various narrators in the book helps us understand the story better.

Friday, November 22, 2019

A Case Study of the Hong Kong Cyberspace Governance - Free Samples

Despite the lack of a common definition of cybercrime it is a global issue which have led to increased study into the area. The internet connection between computers enables past criminal activities as well as generate new as well as unique types of criminalities. The general definition of computer crime can be separated into crimes in strict sense, computer associated crimes as well as abuse of computers. Based on the definition of a US based computer guru Donn B. Parker a computer crime make use of computers though not entirely but also passively provided the evidence of the crime can be traced to the computer storage. The victims of cyber-attacks range from the big computerised organizations to the single individuals who rely on computers to store and analyse their data. The Parker’s definition further single out the following as forms of crimes classified under cyber-attack: destruction of computers or data stored in them, fraud cases like altering financial data illegally in the computer, programming computers to get passwords and credit card numbers illegally for financial fraud and making use of non-existing computers to deceive or intimidate others. In practice to say cybercrime is utilising the computer skills and knowledge to commit a crime will be an acceptable general definition of a cybercrime. A lot of developments are taking place in the computer crime sector in Hong Kong. Of noticeable is the emergence of child pornographic contents in the internet, availing offensive materials in the webpages, information piracy, interception of communication networks, online shopping irregularities, e-banking theft as well as electronic sales cheatings. Considering the utilitarianism theory crimes such as hacking is considered unethical as they fail to be in line with the greater good for most of the population. The hacking or to say illegal securing of information online may cause losses to general society as well as companies. Firms in the finance and insurance sector in Hong Kong rely on the public image to create trust in their customer base. Any initiation of cyber-attack might lead to losses to the firm. The data on such crimes might not be easily available in the Hong Kong crime department units as the firms fear reporting the matter to avoid the negative effects the publicity of such matters might cause in their client’s base (Jetha, 2013). On the other cases as the crime does not involve any physical interaction between the perpetrator and the offend ant, the victim might not detect the loss in time or even he may not be aware of the consequences rendered to him by the hacking. The fact that the information obtained by the hacking is for the benefit of few individuals without considering the suffering of the majority affected by the act makes it unethical issue under the utilitarianism. In the global business set up there are established rules and guidelines which define people’s responsibilities. Acts such as obtaining passwords and credit card details of clients illegally for perpetrating fraud is said to be unethical under the theory of deontology. This is brought about by the perpetrators deviation from the normal perceptions which are regarded as ethical. In the online trading securing funds from the clients without offering the products and services in return is regarded as fraud and further classified as unethical behaviour (faith, 1998). The normal set standards require the trader and the consumer to respect the set guidelines hence any person failure to adhere to this is rendered unethical. By the classical ethical theory of virtue, morality and character moral agents forms the basis of classifying the behaviours as ethical. Considering the case of child pornographic contents the person availing such information on the internet is going against the morality as defined by the general society. Such behaviours are thereby classified as unethical with their perpetration through the computer qualifying the crime as a cybercrime The operation of business activities the Hong Kong economy relies on the pre-set contractual rules which are formulated by legislature and implemented by the judiciary.   This rules gives directions on the responsibilities of parties in ensuring that all the conditions appropriate for their association to adhere to the contract are followed (Clerke, 200).   This theory of a contract defines what’s ethical. As a component of cybercrime cases such piracy of information and illegal securing of people’s private information goes against the theory of contract, as so they qualify to be classifies as unethical behaviours. The improvement in technology have improved globally, as a result public knowledge and usage of information technology have been on the rise. The use of computers and the internet is quickly cutting through the Hong Kong economy. Be it in the business or household management all the way to entertainment computerisation is taking over. This brings us to the problem. Cybercrime too is expanding its wings (Varian, 1999). This increase in the use of computers are availing a larger platform for cyber-attack. With most internet users being of young age especially students the government have all the reasons to formulate laws to regulate the use of the internet with an aim of filtering out the cyber-crime offenders. Activities like youth education is a stable stepping stone for setting the computer and information ethics. For businesses to embrace and fully utilise the computerisation there is need for a safe environment in the cyberspace. Ecommerce is very important for Hong Kong in terms of development of the economy as well as building the face of the Hong Kong business as an international trading centre commercial hub in the section (A., 2003). The computer has been used for criminal objectives and there is need for more interceptions to discourage this vice. No matter how individuals and companies are knowledgeable about information technology they are still at a risk of cyber-attack. For internet and computer security the following are recommended measures to curb the cybercrime menace. Boost up security awareness. Business employees are the pathway through which most hackers hit the organisations. It has therefore important to train them on the need to put more concentration on the security of their data with initiatives such as use of complex passwords. In addition, they use implement the use of different passwords for separate account. As the firm migrate to use of cloud computing initiatives such as installation of antiviruses in the computers, installation of firewalls as well as using an upgraded operating system will minimise the potentiality of cyber-attack on your computers Even though the measures above are assurance of computer security there is need to always expect an attack as you are not aware of how prepared the cybercrime offenders are. Use intrusion detection devices, and back up your information just in case of an attack you don’t incur huge losses. Not all the employees in an organization share in the firm’s mission and vision to protect yourself from malicious employees it’s recommended that the firm restrict access to some of its most vital information. The data access should be keyword protected with the fewest people possible allowed access to them. Due to limited knowledge on computer among various managers it is important for affirm to seek the services of security personnel to help him detect areas in the organization which might be a weak point for cyber-attack. Employment of an expert will ensure that the firm gets regular attention needed for security purposes. If you consider the cost of lost information or aftermath situation of a cyber-attack its will be cheaper to work with the cyber security personnel All these ideas if implemented together with adequate government support will help Hong Kong economy get rid of cybercriminals (Won, 2005). A., A. (2003). The changing purpose of capital punishment: A restrospective on the past century and soime thoughts about the next. The University of Chicago Law Review, 1-15. Clerke, B. S. (200). distributedsecurity: preventing cybercrime. Journal of Computer and Information Law, 650-700. faith, L. (1998). Are shock incarceration programs more rehabilitative than traditional prison. Justice Quartely, 500-550. Jetha, K. (2013). CYBERCRIME AND PUNISHMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF THE DEONTOLOGICAL AND UTILITARIAN FUNCTIONS OF PUNUSHMENT IN THE INFORMATION AGE. Georgia: University of Georgia. Varian, S. C. (1999). Information rules: A strategic guide to the network economy. Boston: Harvad business press. Won, K. C. (2005). Law and Order in Cyberspace: A Case Study of Cyberspace Governance in Hong Kong. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L, 248-260. Retrieved from Ways to Prevent Cyber Crimes From Derailing Your Business.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Problems and Issues of Childhood Obesity Research Paper

Problems and Issues of Childhood Obesity - Research Paper Example This essay "Problems and Issues of Childhood Obesity" outlines the consequences of the obesity and the steps that should be taken to stop it. When children take much of the beverages such as soda and juice boxes, they increase their chances of contracting the obesity. Therefore, large soda bottle quantities should not be advertised where the children are since they promote obesity epidemic. The number of children consuming soda has increased by 300% for the last 20 years. This shows the rate at which children are at risk of being obese. It is, therefore, documented that, there has been a 60% increase in obesity due to this increase in consumption of soda by children. Such beverages as soda contain some amount of calories that contributes to obesity, and currently, it is estimated that 20% of the children are overweight due to the contributions of calories intake in beverages. It has been noted that children of the current world show a great reduction in physical activity. With the cu rrent growth in use of technology such as computers, watching television and their rest, most children tend to remain non-mobile as they can do almost everything they want at a sitting. Physical education has also greatly reduced in our schools making the children neglect physical activity. All these new factors of life have made children adopt a sedentary lifestyle which make them attract the disposing factors of becoming obese. The current sedentary lifestyle that has been adopted by children also contribute to the increase of the obesity epidemic.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

The strengths and weaknesses of an entrepreneurial strategist Essay

The strengths and weaknesses of an entrepreneurial strategist - Essay Example The importance of strategic thinking leads to strategic planning and is extremely important in the opportunity identification process. Successful entrepreneurs are self confident and try to meet the heist possible standards. Most of them are hard working and energetic, enthusiastic, passionate and self-critical. They get others to do things by giving them little scope to influence decisions. Intuition is one of the most unique qualities possessed by successful entrepreneurs (Burns 2001). They use the intuitive ability to understand the dynamics of market structures, competition, customer needs, timing, synergies, and the like (Clark and Lee 2006). They have great knowledge, expertise and personal charisma. Successful entrepreneurs accept full responsibility for the achievement of the business objective and it is therefore essential for trust and co-operation from both sides to be in evidence all the time. "They welcome change because it creates opportunities that can be exploited and often create it through innovation" (Burns 2001, p. 5). Most of them have excellent communication skills which help them to find partners and investors. Successful entrepreneurs are open to new ideas and willingly accept risk. The weaknesses of entrepreneurs prevent them to achieve success and bui

Saturday, November 16, 2019

The United States Constitution Essay Example for Free

The United States Constitution Essay Introduction The Revolutionary War had come to a satisfactory conclusion, and no particular cause of urgency gripped the delegates to the Constitutional Convention, as they gathered in Philadelphia in the spring of 1787. The Continental Congress conducted all functions of the central government since the commencement of its first session in September of 1774, on the heals of the Boston Port Act. News of this latest move of the British Parliament, which ordered the closing of Bostons harbor pending the repatriation of losses suffered by the East India Company on account of Bostons infamous tea party, reached American shores in May of that year (Rakove 21). The rallying cry during the American Revolution was for American sovereignty to establish independence from Britain, while the major issues that motivated that cry centered on the protection of colonial property from the long arm of the British Parliament. Acts of Parliament in the 1760s and 1770s, such as the disturbingly invasive Stamp Act of 1765, struck many colonists as overly demanding, and intolerable violations of local control (Keane 89). While the Stamp Act was particularly inflammatory, Parliament passed numerous acts during this period, including the Sugar Act of 1764, the Declaratory Act and Townshend Acts from 1767 to 1769, and the Boston Port act of 1774 (Rakove 22). The predominant substance of these acts was taxation; the mother country felt such taxes should be expected from the colonists to assure they contributed their share toward supporting the empire and preserving the benefits all English citizens enjoyed from this empire. The safeguarding of global trade provided a prominent example; it augmented the wealth of the empire and her mercantile class. Parliament regulated this trade, and protected its continuation by the provision of war ships. But the extractions of wealth Britain demanded from her American colonists to support the empire were not seen as justified by many in America. Britain was embroiled in a long-standing war against France. The colonists believed they were being taxed excessively to support this war effort. Many colonists felt they paid their dues to the empire by suffering direct exposure to the French and Indians during recent conflicts, and resented the additional imposition of greater taxation (Keane 88). They demanded greater local control over the levels of revenue to be submitted to Britain, and an exclusive right to determine the means of collecting that revenue. Many patriots, such as Samuel Adams, worked for years to pull together a more unified American resistance to British claims. On the heals of the Boston Port Act, Adams noted that American response to it suddenly wrought a Union of the Colonies which could not be brought about by the Industry of years in reasoning on the necessity of it for the Common Safety (Rakove 40). Urgency beset the delegates as they gathered to coordinate a response to recent onerous Parliamentary measures, and government under the First Continental Congress got underway. Within a year they shifted from evaluating diplomatic responses to coordinating the American military preparedness for war against British troops. By the summer of 1776, they issued the Declaration of Independence, declaring for King and country that reform, compromise, and reconciliation no longer sufficed. Events now necessitated a clean break with the mother country. The Continental Congress, operating under the framework established by the Articles of Confederation, fulfilled American requirements for centralized government through the successful completion of the Revolutionary War in 1783, and until the fateful spring of 1787 (Bowen). What conditions caused the delegates gathered for the convention in Philadelphia in 1787 to propose a radically different government? What motivated them to propose the dissolution of the Continental Congress, and suggest that the sovereignty of their respective states be usurped by a newly formulated national government? How did issues of control over property enter into this dynamic? This paper examines and gives answers to these questions. Conditions Leading Up to the Constitution Radical in nature and revolutionary in result, the proposal formulated by the Convention of 1787 far exceeded the evolutionary goals set forth in the guidance given to delegates prior to their arrival. The state legislatures, firmly sovereign under the Articles, did not send delegates in the expectation that the result would be a Federal government subjecting the states to the will of a national sovereign. The Continental Congress sanctioned the Philadelphia convention for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation (Bowen 4). Instead of revising the Articles, the proposal emanating from the Convention turned the Articles into a dead letter, upon its adoption by state ratification conventions. Moreover, the delegates formulated a government so radically different in nature that its breadth and scope was not even contemplated as a realistic possibility by the population at large in the Spring of 1787 (Larson). Defects of the existing system, more than the pleasure of free intellectual discourse, provided the principle motivation for the delegates to generate the solutions contained in the new Constitution.  Ã‚   Two prominent problem areas compelled them to formulate this radical proposal for change. First, vices of the state governments, which could not be adequately restrained under the existing system, resulted in numerous problems motivating reform (Madison 4). The second set of forces at work for change was the insurmountable limitation besetting the Continental Congress in its effort to carry out its assigned functions. These forces formed pincers of change operating on the delegates. Property rights played an important role in both arms of these pincers. Many delegates at the Convention believed that the state governments often abused their authority by unjustly impacting private property rights; they looked for opportunities to curb these abuses through a newly formulated national power (Nedelsky 22-23).   Additionally, the Continental Congress lack of authority over property contributed substantially to its ineffectiveness. Restrictive trade measures pursued by both Britain and France within a year of the Treaty of Paris proved to be more detrimental to American interests than the British retention of forts on the new countrys frontier.   Britain discriminated against American commerce in numerous ways, including the closure of its own ports and those of the West Indies to ships from her lost colony. Such provocations should have been met with retaliatory commercial measures. Unfortunately, the Continental Congress lacked the authority to coordinate such measures, and since the impacts of various options fell with different force upon each state, no particular option would be readily agreed to or complied with by the various legislatures. While the British parliament coordinated trade policy to punish American commercial interests, the Americans could not coordinate a retaliatory policy to force the British to reverse their practices (Mee 30). Secure access to the Mississippi River was pivotal to the issue of commerce for all inhabitants of the Western frontier, and proved to be another source of consternation for those counting on the Continental Congress for solutions.  Ã‚   The movement of products to ports from interior lands relied on shipping them down the Mississippi, through the Gulf of Mexico, to ports on the Atlantic Ocean. Relying on over-land routes to ports on the Atlantic was unpractically expensive, in 1784, Spain declared that the Mississippi closed to American navigation (Keane 94-5). In addition to grappling with Mississippi navigational rights, Congress was also attempting to guide the development and settlement of Western lands. Setting up the framework of the nations expansion to the West, and the admission into the Confederacy of future states resulting from this settlement, was another key challenge facing Congress. As settlers streamed to the West, they required protection from the native populations, who were typically displaced without fair compensation, and who often heckled and attacked settlements in response (Mee 207-208).   Protection for such settlers could not be provided in earnest, due to the ever-present incapacity of Congress to find funds to appropriate to the cause, as well as substantial disagreement about the details of how Western settlement should proceed. During American history around the time of the crafting of the Constitution, poverty very likely did mean sloth and idleness (Bowen 70). At that time, land was an abundant resource and three-quarters of Americans earned their living in agricultural pursuits. Labor was relatively scarce; no large pool of unemployed people existed to keep downward pressure on wages. Eligibility to vote during this period typically required that one own enough property to qualify as a freeholder. Most citizens possessed property exceeding these prescribed thresholds. Robert Morris, one of the nations leading financiers, and a delegate to the Convention, estimated that ninety percent of those otherwise eligible to vote in America met the requirements to be considered freeholders (Nedelsky 77). To qualify as a freeholder in Virginia for the first elections held under the new Constitution, a white male over twenty-one years of age needed to own either fifty acres of property, or twenty-five acres with a house (Labunski 152). Even poor immigrants could normally find work that paid well enough to allow them to accumulate adequate savings to purchase land. Americans of the revolutionary era were particularly susceptible to political arguments stressing property rights. Easy availability of land had long characterized colonial society, and by the time of the revolutionary crisis the ownership of land was widespread. Indeed, this broad distribution of property was one of the most distinctive features of colonial life, in marked contrast with the situation in England. Even landless persons could reasonably hope to become owners eventually (Labunski 160-3). Achieving any reform through amending the Articles of Confederation required the agreement of all thirteen states. All prior attempts at amendments failed to achieve such a consensus. Rhode Island did not send delegates to the Convention, and for years openly admitted that the state had no interest in allowing modifications to the Articles. While the delegates ostensible purpose was to propose an evolution to government under the Articles, such a path already had a track record of failure. The performance of the state governments caused much concern. The Continental Congress lacked the authority to check the transgressions of the states or carry out essential national functions on their own accord (Bowen 235). These conditions convinced the gathering delegates that action was required. Many of their most significant concerns with governmental operations at the state level and national level were connected to the issue of property rights. The Founding Fathers gathered in Philadelphia with a desire to retain a government founded on the republican principle of majority rule, while also formulating new safeguards for the protection of property beyond those present under state governments. Previous attempts at evolution proving fruitless, the delegates turned to revolutionary proposals in pursuit of these aims. Constitutional Convention As Madison entered the Pennsylvania State House to attend the Constitutional Convention, in May of 1787, he struggled to resolve the tension between formulating a republican government based on the will of the majority, and preserving justice for the minority in matters of personal liberties, such as the protection of property. Establishing a strong enough tether to protect the minority from such measures while still preserving republican principles would not be easy. What steps did the framers take in establishing a republic to protect property rights from being plundered by the majority? They successfully pursued both explicit language to protect property, and a structural design that implicitly lead to the protection of property. The resulting construction left many particular questions about property unanswered, but bestowed to future generations a government framework that rested on republican principles while also assuring a relatively high level of protection for the rights of the propertied minority.  Ã‚   The success of Madison and his compatriots at this endeavor, in the form of our Constitution, placed American government on a strong foundation from which to proceed (Labunski 189-94). The Constitution contains explicit language establishing authorities related to property rights and safeguards for the protection of private property. Before addressing the way the new governments structural design implicitly protects the rights of those holding property, these explicit provisions will be reviewed. They are predominantly located in Article I of the Constitution, which outlines the legislative framework of the new government. The framers aimed to place significant new limits on the ability of states to enact legislation assaulting property rights or redistributing property, such as the troublesome wave of debtor relief laws states subjected creditors to in the years following the Revolutionary War. Language in Article I, Section 10, established specific restrictions on the power of states.   Included therein was a prohibition on forcing creditors to accept payment tendered in anything other than gold or silver coin, also known as specie (Larson 198). Section 8 of Article I, which delineated the powers given to the new national Congress, granted that body the power to coin money and regulate its value, while Section 10 prohibited the states from doing so.   This language took aim at the notorious practice of printing money, which often turned out to be valueless, and forcing creditors to accept it as payment for debt. The framers also attempted to protect the property of creditors from plunder by reinforcing contractual obligations binding debtors and creditors (Ely 45). In a move destined to have far-reaching implications relative to the sanctity of contract law, and its importance in protecting propertied interests under all contractual arrangements, Section 10 prohibited states from enacting any law impairing the obligation of contracts (Larson 207). These provisions, along with the assurance provided under Article VI that all debts valid under the Confederation remained enforceable under the Constitution, were all efforts to protect the property of creditors. They shielded the minority creditor class from the political muscle the debtor class brandished so successfully under the Articles of Confederation. The regulation of commerce impacts private property, by influencing its value in numerous ways and providing a venue for its fair trade. As with the production of coins, the framers both explicitly granted Congress the power to regulate commerce, and prohibited states from interfering with such regulations. The previous section explored many of the areas in which the limited authority the Continental Congress exercised over commerce between states and with foreign powers caused difficulties.   The gathering of the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 followed a Convention held in Annapolis, Maryland in 1786, which gathered primarily for the propose of proposing amendments to the Articles of Confederation that would allow for the national regulation of commerce (Larson 207). Delegates from only five states arrived at the Annapolis Convention; such meager participation made it clear that any substantive measures emanating from the gathering would be stillborn. But, instead of dispersing with no action at all, Madison and others present called on the states to send delegates to Philadelphia nine months later to devise such further provisions as shall appear to them necessary to render the constitution of the federal government adequate to the exigencies of the Union (Rakove 374). The weak Continental Congress could not prevent such measures, and commercial regulations between the various states and between states and foreign powers often despoiled the value of property by establishing regulations to assist some groups with little regard for the interests of others. The explicit limits in Section 10 on state powers included language clarifying that states could not lay any imposts on imports or exports or enter into any compacts with other states without the consent of Congress. Particularly important to delegates from the land-rich southern states, Section 9, which spelled out specific limits on the power of the national Congress, provided protection for the propertied agrarian interests by banning any tax on exports (Ely 43-4). The state governments demonstrated their lack of resolve to provide adequate protections to property rights under the Articles of Confederation. In all the areas discussed above, delegates attempted to remedy this within the republic being constructed by explicitly placing matters in the hands of the national government and limiting the power of state legislatures. Madison feared this would not be enough, and worked hard to achieve another safeguard from the destructive power of the states. While constructing a government based on the principle of majority rule inherently resulted in some threat to the personal liberties of the minority, Madison believed the new national government afforded better protection for such liberties than the state governments. He therefore fought to provide the national government with the power to veto any measures passed by the state legislatures, as a means of holding the untrustworthy state governments in check (Labunski 247). On the issue of taxation, those desiring more power be shifted to the central government won a major victory at the Philadelphia Convention. Experience under the Articles of Confederation demonstrated that for the national government to be effective, it must not be left to rely on the willingness of the states to provide revenue. Unlike the issues above, no language would prevent states from taking action in the area of taxes; this would be an area of mutual responsibility. The list of powers explicitly granted to Congress in Article I, Section 8, begins with the power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises (Larson 205). Under the Articles of Confederation, the central government lacked the means of carrying out most measures, because the states often refused to provide funds when requisitioned to do so. Alexander Hamilton, in Federalist Paper #15, claimed that this inability to raise revenue by acting directly on citizens was the great and radical vice in the construction of the existing confederation (108). The delegates agreed with Hamilton and others that this limitation must be remedied to allow any central government to operate effectively. Many believed the best solution would leave the power of direct taxation only in the hands of the state government, and grant a coercive power to the national government, by which it might force the states to comply with requisitions. However, the Federalists believed this position to fanciful, pointing out that coercing states resulted inevitably in coercing actual citizens. In mustering military force against a state that did not fulfill a requisition, it would inevitably be the citizens of that state receiving the blows, for example. The state, an ephemeral geo-political entity, can not itself be coerced (Doughtery 171). Worse yet, any measures meant to induce obedience would inevitably punish indiscriminately. It would not be only those unwilling to pay their share of a requisition in a state that would suffer from such measures. Applying coercive measures could not be a surgical exercise of carving out only the malignant specimen. It would instead be like a knight charging toward a phalanx landing his blow upon any member of the line present at the end of his lance. All citizens of a state would be subject to the suffering resulting from any coercive measures. Ratification of The Constitution Vesting the central government with the ability to raise taxes and thereby redistribute property directly, without working through the states, required achieving a proper balance between providing the central government with inadequate power and excessive power.  Ã‚   The resulting compromise required that any direct taxation by the national government would be apportioned according to population, which shielded those with land wealth from shouldering exorbitant shares of federal expenditures (Ely 43-4). Despite the efforts of those at the Convention, the issue of taxation proved to be one of the most contentious issues during the Constitution ratification debates held in each state. In the debate leading up to the slim margin of victory for the Federalists supporting the Constitutions ratification, the Anti-Federalists kept bringing this issue to the surface as a prominent example of the new governments excessive power. After this vote, the Virginians turned to developing Constitutional amendments to forward to the new government for consideration and adoption. The vote to forward an amendment limiting the central governments ability to directly tax passed by a wider margin than the vote on the ratification of the Constitution itself, indicating that even some of its supporters harbored concerns about giving the new government such power (Labunski 115). Though the word slave does not appear in the Constitution, three specific provisions strengthening the hands of slave-owners in the protection of their property interests were granted, in an effort to attain Southern support for the resulting document. First, it was agreed in Article I, Section 9, that importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit could not be regulated by Congress prior to 1808 (Larson 206). Second, language in Article IV established that fugitive slaves must be returned to their owners, even in the event they cross state lines. While these two provisions treated slaves as property, the third provision dealt with determining the strength of each states representation in the House of Representatives. Southern delegates wanted them counted as people in formulating the distribution of representatives in Congress, to assure the adequate protection of their interests at the national level. On this last point, the delegates reached a compromise of counting three-fifths of the slave population for the purposes of Congressional apportionment (Larson 208). These provisions all strengthened the position of slave owners, and substantiate the claim that slavery was more clearly and explicitly established under the Constitution than it had been under the Articles (Ely 46).   However, it would be a mistake to accuse the delegates to the Convention of being oblivious to the moral implications of slavery. Indeed, the ability to hold other humans as slaves under established property law placed vexing restraints on the delegates ability to claim that property rights flow out of natural law. No one in 1787 defended the ownership of slaves as included among the natural rights of property. And yet most of the framers believed that since slavery existed as a matter of positive law, slave owners could claim the right to have their property secure. This painful reminder that not all positive rights of property were natural rights, or perhaps even consistent with natural rights, meant that the arguments for the security of property could not simply rely on claims of natural right (Nedelsky 153). It would be more accurate to conclude that slavery protections were an inevitable extension of the general importance the delegates placed on property rights, than to reach the conclusion that slavery itself was hotly contested, and that property protections grew out of any overarching debate on the topic of slavery. Many present at the Convention despised the peculiar institution, and most were morally uncomfortable with it, but accepted its existence as an extant political reality. Its management was incidental to the larger issue of protecting property rights in general, and its existence limited the ability of the delegates to claim that those protections flowed inextricably from mans natural rights (Larson). The framers achieved a desirable balance on the issue of property rights in the development of the Constitution. They enhanced the autonomy of individuals living under the resulting government by their efforts to balance governments power over property against the rights of individuals over property.   They substantially enhanced the power of the central government over property compared to government under the Articles of Confederation, while curbing the ability of state governments to impact property. They retained republican principles such as the rule of the majority. Thereby, no individual possessed absolute control over property. Nobody could think of themselves as a king with rights to property granted by God, and count on complete immunity from governmental impacts on property or redistribution of property (Ely). On the other side of the balance, explicit language and implicit structural safeguards were established to protect property rights and other essential liberties for everyone, even those in the minority. No large republics existed when the framers did this work, so they could not simply draw on the experience of others. They were familiar with a long history of monarchs and nobility holding onto power and wielding it to protect their property rights. They were also familiar with government under the Confederation, which brought the benefits of republican government to the citizens of America, but did not adequately safeguard property from the political agenda of a majority looking to improve their position at the expense of property owners. In the Constitution, the founders achieved a desirable balance, and succeeded in constructing a government that preserved republican virtues while also protecting minority liberties, such as the protection of property rights. Conclusion The framers of the Constitution placed a high priority on protecting the rights of individuals to acquire, accumulate, and appropriate property. Balancing the protection of property rights with the establishment of a national government founded on the republican principle of upholding the interests of the majority provided a key challenge for the members of the Constitutional Convention. The Articles of Confederation left sovereign power in the hands of each of the confederated states. The state constitutions, while far from uniform, all provided republican forms of government. As such, state legislative bodies responded readily to the outcries of their constituents. The majority wielded substantial power to achieve their aims, regardless of the justice of their cause. This often resulted in a lack of protection for the property of the more affluent minority, as they struggled against the will of the majority to redistribute property. The Founding Fathers judged many state legislative actions, pursued by the will of the majority, to be an unscrupulous taking of property from one group to benefit another. In particular, debtor relief acts, passed in the wake of the Revolutionary War, often heavily favored the debtor class over the propertied financiers of the war effort. The delegates that gathered at the Philadelphia Convention in May 1787, felt compelled to formulate a government providing greater protection for individual property rights. At the same time, they remained committed to retaining a system predicated on republican principles. No legitimate republican government could simply disregard the will of the majority by placing a cabal of the propertied few perpetually in power. The structure and operation of the government that grew out of the Constitution they created came about in no small measure due to efforts to balance tension between protecting the rights of individuals to safeguard property, and the rights of a republican government to exercise control over property for the benefit of the majority of the public. Viewed within the context of their place in history, the compromises they established in response to this tension were appropriately crafted to enhance the autonomy of those citizens living under the resulting government. Bibliography Bowen, Catherine Drinker. Miracle at Philadelphia: The Story of the Constitutional Convention May to September 1787. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company, 1986. Ely, James. The Guardian of Every Other Right: A Constitutional History of Property Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Keane, John. Tom Paine, A Political Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company, 1995. Labunski, Richard. James Madison and the Struggle for the Bill of Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Larson, Edward F. and Michael P. Winship, Eds. The Constitutional Convention: A Narrative from the Notes of James Madison. New York: The Modern Library, 2005. Madison, James. Vices of the Political System of the United States, 1787, Teaching American History, 2007 http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=802 Mee, Charles L. The Genius of the People. New York: Harper Row, 1987. Nedelsky, Jennifer. Private Property and the Limits of American Constitutionalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. Rakove, Jack N. The Beginnings of National Politics. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979.